The Basics of Data Communication


Data communication is the primary component that connects us to the devices and services we depend on in our interconnected digital world. It encompasses various techniques and media that control how information flows from one end to the other. Understanding how this works can help us create efficient and reliable networks that can reap the benefits of greater connectivity, such as improved business efficiency in productivity, as well as advancements in automation.

The basic concept of data communication is the transmission of data from one computer to another via the medium or channel. This can be done over wire cables or radio frequency, satellite signal or wirelessly. A device or person who transmits data is called the sender and the computer which receives the data is referred to as the receiver. In a data communication network, more than two computers may be involved in the communication process.

Demultiplexing and multiplexing are both useful communication technologies that permit multiple signals to be transmitted across a medium simultaneously, optimizing bandwidth utilization and reducing costs. Both of these processes require special equipment which can combine and separate signals. Custom integrated circuits are often used to perform this function and can be found in a variety of communication devices such as phones, computers and printers.

Full-duplex is the method of data transmission that permits simultaneous two-way communication within two devices. This mode is more complicated than simplex transmission, since it requires the ability to transmit and receive data simultaneously.


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